Benjamin J. Makamson, D.O.
Lee C. Ferguson, D.O.
Michael B. Hogan, M.D.
Ralph B. Pfeiffer, Jr., M.D.

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Kenley Sweet
Kenley Sweet
Kenley Sweet's Blog
The Main Differences in Ischemic Strokes and Transient Ischemic Attacks.png

Is it a stroke or a mini-stroke? Knowing the difference may be harder than it seems. Ischemic Strokes and Transient Ischemic Attacks - more commonly known as a “mini-stroke” - look and act almost identical. They share similar causes, symptoms, and risk factors, making it difficult for even medical professionals to tell them apart.

 

So what’s the difference between an ischemic stroke and a transient ischemic attack (TIA), and is one really better than the other? Read on to find out. 

 

Ischemic Stroke

 

Almost 75% of all strokes are ischemic strokes. An ischemic stroke occurs when a blockage in the brain’s artery causes blood flow to be restricted to an area of the brain. As brain tissue dies, critical functions like speech, memory, and muscle movement are impaired. An ischemic stroke is a medical emergency that can be fatal if not treated as soon as possible. 

 

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

 

A TIA is also caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain. Unlike an ischemic stroke, a TIA is temporary and resolves on its own without medical intervention. Blood flow typically returns to normal within a few minutes and symptoms resolve completely within 24 hours. TIA can cause permanent damage but typically does not have permanent symptoms. It can also lead to long-term cognitive problems including increased risk for dementia.

 

Stroke and TIA Symptoms

 

The short-term symptoms of an ischemic stroke and a TIA are very similar and can include:

 

  • Muscle weakness

  • Numbness or Tingling

  • Difficulty speaking or understanding speech

  • Loss of coordination

  • Drooling

  • Drooping of one side of the face

  • Confusion

 

It’s important to note that it’s impossible to tell the difference between an ischemic stroke and a TIA from initial symptoms alone. Any combination of the above symptoms requires immediate medical attention. 

 

Stroke and TIA Prognosis

A stroke is a dangerous emergency that can cause permanent disability and even death. Most strokes can be successfully treated if diagnosed early, though most survivors suffer long-term consequences such as problems with speech and memory.

 

Because it resolves on its own very quickly, a TIA does not cause lasting brain damage or disability. That being said, a TIA is a warning sign you should never ignore. They often foreshadow future strokes, and about 12 percent of patients with a TIA die within a year. 

 

Treatment & Management

 

The treatment for an ischemic stroke involves removing the blockage through clot-busting medications or surgical intervention. Once treated, survivors must typically undergo physical therapy and rehabilitation to combat long-term disabilities. Stroke prevention measures including medications, regular testing, imaging studies, and surgery can reduce your risk of future strokes. 

 

TIA symptoms resolve on their own without the need for medical intervention. TIA patients will need to undergo a full medical evaluation to identify and manage any stroke risk factors. Treatment plans typically include medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol, lifestyle changes, and surgical vessel repair if needed.

 

If you are at risk or have suffered a stroke, the expert physicians at Vascular Associates of South Alabama can help. We offer detailed stroke prevention and management treatments that can determine and reduce your risk of future strokes. Contact us today! 

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Symptoms of Varicose Veins

Varicose veins. They’re all too common - affecting nearly 35% of the U.S. population - and often considered harmless, but leaving them untreated may not be as safe as you think.

Varicose veins occur when the valves in superficial veins weaken, causing blood to collect and pool in the area. This leads to veins that are twisted, enlarged, and dark in color. They most commonly occur in legs, though any superficial vein can become varicose.

Often, varicose veins are mostly a cosmetic concern. But if left untreated, they can cause physical symptoms that range from merely inconvenient to completely debilitating.

Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are most commonly recognized by their distinct appearance. Signs that you may have varicose veins include:

  • Veins that appear swollen, raised and twisted beneath the skin
  • Veins that are purplish or dark blue in color
  • Spider veins, or mild red and blue-colored veins beneath the skin

In some cases, varicose veins can cause physical symptoms that range from mild to severe. Symptoms of varicose veins can include:

Pain and Discomfort. Varicose veins can cause burning, throbbing, aching, or itching in the legs. The pain usually increases with prolonged sitting or standing.

Limb Fatigue. Varicose veins may cause a heavy or tired feeling in the legs or limbs.

Bleeding. Varicose veins may rupture and bleed with mild trauma.

Skin Discoloration. The skin around a varicose vein may become swollen or discolored.

Skin Tears. Varicose veins may cause skin tears or ulceration in severe cases.

Phlebitis. If left untreated, varicose veins can lead to superficial blood clots, a condition that causes pain, swelling, and redness in the vein or affected limb.

When To See A Doctor

Varicose veins are often harmless, but they may indicate a more serious underlying health condition like Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). For this reason, new or severe varicose veins should always be evaluated by your physician. Your doctor will work with you to develop a treatment and management plan for your varicose veins.

At Vascular Associates of South Alabama, we offer comprehensive and non-invasive treatment options for varicose veins, including sclerotherapy injections, endovenous laser treatment, phlebectomy procedures, and compression stockings. If you need help with your varicose veins, contact us today.

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Hearing the words, “you have Peripheral Artery Disease” can be scary. As plaque builds up in the arteries, they begin to narrow and blood has a harder time flowing to important areas of the body. While a serious disease that requires prompt treatment, Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) has several treatment options that can manage the disease, treat your symptoms, and keep your arteries and blood flow working properly.

Peripheral Artery Disease Treatment Options

If you have PAD, your doctor will work with you to develop an appropriate treatment plan. It’s important to remember that which treatment option will work best for you depends on the severity and location of your PAD, as well as your unique health needs. Some patients may see excellent results from lifestyle changes alone, while others need additional (or different) types of care.

Lifestyle Changes

For mild PAD sufferers, lifestyle changes may be enough to slow or even halt the progression of your disease. Commonly prescribed lifestyle changes include:

  • Stop smoking
  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat a healthy diet that’s low in fats and cholesterol
  • Manage underlying conditions like diabetes or high blood pressure

Medications

There are many prescription medications available to treat the signs and symptoms of PAD and lower your risk for other health conditions. Your doctor may prescribe medications to treat underlying conditions like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or diabetes. PAD patients may also receive medications to prevent blood clots, improve blood flow, reduce pain from claudication, and more.

Surgical Options

If your PAD cannot be controlled through lifestyle changes and medication alone, surgical intervention may be needed. The most common surgical procedures to treat PAD include:

Arterial Bypass. The most common treatment for PAD involves inserting a graft bypass to move blood around the blocked or narrowed artery. The graft may be made from a vessel taken from another part of your body or using synthetic (man-made) materials.

Angioplasty. A less invasive procedure known as an angioplasty involves using a catheter to thread a balloon into the affected artery. The balloon is then inflated, flattening the blockage into the artery wall and stretching the artery to improve blood flow. If needed, your doctor may insert a mesh or metallic stent to keep the artery open.

Clot Treatment. If a blood clot is completely restricting the blood flow in an artery, your doctor may insert clot-busting medication into the artery to dissolve the clot or may need to remove the clot completely.

If you’ve been diagnosed with or are at risk of Peripheral Artery Disease, the expert physicians at Vascular Associates of South Alabama can help! We specialize in high-tech, minimally invasive treatment options to diagnose, manage, and treat your PAD. Schedule an appointment to visit our on-site, state-of-the-art lab and outpatient facility today!

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Many people associate aneurysms with a sudden rupture in the brain. But an aneurysm can occur in any blood vessel in the body that has a weak spot in the artery wall, causing it to stretch into a balloon-like bulge. When an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, the large blood vessel in the abdomen that supplies blood to the legs, it’s known as an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

As with the brain, an abdominal aneurysm can suddenly rupture, causing death. But many people have abdominal aneurysms for years without symptoms or medical problems. So you know what to watch for to prevent this silent killer, here are 5 facts you should know about abdominal aneurysms.

1. They are fairly common. According to The Society for Vascular Surgery, abdominal aneurysms affect 200,000 people per year in the United States. This makes them the 15th leading cause of death in the country.

2. There may be no symptoms. Most people experience no symptoms of an abdominal aneurysm until it ruptures, becoming a life-threatening emergency. The majority of abdominal aneurysms are found during routine check-ups or other medical exams.

If the aneurysm becomes large enough to press on surrounding organs, you may experience pain in the belly, chest, lower back, or legs. The pain may come and go or it may be constant. You may also experience a pulsating feeling in your abdomen.

If the aneurysm creates a blood clot that breaks off and impedes blood flow, you may experience discolored skin or sores on your feet and/or toes.

3. They can be caused by a variety of factors. There is no one cause of abdominal aneurysms. Weakness or tears in the aortic wall, genetic factors, and contributing medical conditions are the most common causes of abdominal aneurysms.

Those at greatest risk of abdominal aneurysms include:

  • Smokers
  • Those over 60
  • Men
  • Caucasians
  • Those with a history of atherosclerosis
  • Those with a family history of abdominal aneurysms (especially first-generation relatives)
  • Those with other medical conditions including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, vascular disease, or connective tissue disorders

4. They can be deadly. Many abdominal aneurysms have no symptoms until they present with life or limb-threatening complications. Aneurysms that are undiagnosed or that grow unimpeded can rupture, causing severe internal bleeding and death.

A ruptured aneurysm presents with sudden and severe pain in the belly or back. You may also have an extreme drop in blood pressure or experience signs of shock. A ruptured aneurysm requires immediate medical attention.  Up to 80% of people who have a ruptured aneurysm do not survive to get to the hospital, and of those who do only 50% survive 1 month after hospital stay if able to be treated promptly.

5. There are effective treatments. If you’re diagnosed with an abdominal aneurysm, a vascular surgeon can help you determine a proper treatment plan that is tailored to your specific needs. The need for treatment depends on the size and anatomy of your aneurysm, your medical history, and how well you may tolerate a specific procedure.

Non-surgical treatments can be effective in slowing the growth of an aneurysm and are the first line of treatment for aneurysms under 5 centimeters. They include lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and healthy diet and exercise plans, medications to control high blood pressure or high cholesterol, and routine monitoring of the aneurysm’s growth.

If your abdominal aneurysm is over 5 centimeters or is causing symptoms, surgical intervention may be needed. There are 2 main surgical treatments for abdominal aneurysms:

  • An Open Repair procedure inserts an artificial graft through an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm.
  • An Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) uses specialized tools and X-ray guidance to insert a stent into the aneurysm through the femoral artery in the groin.

If you’re at risk or have been diagnosed with an abdominal aneurysm, schedule a vascular evaluation with Vascular Associates of South Alabama. Our renowned vascular surgeons are specially trained in the most innovative, effective aneurysm treatments as well as advanced methods for diagnosing them in their early stages. They will work closely with you to develop an appropriate treatment plan to fit your unique needs.

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If you’re monitoring your vascular health, you’ve probably been told to keep a watch on your cholesterol. This sticky villain is a known health risk, responsible for clogged arteries, heart attacks, strokes, and a variety of other life-threatening problems.

But cholesterol is a natural substance that has both good and bad qualities - when it’s consumed appropriately. So how did this once-beneficial substance turn into the big bad wolf of vascular health? Let’s get back to the basics.

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is an organic substance found in the walls of every human cell. It’s necessary for the production of hormones, Vitamin D, and substances that aid in proper digestion.

Your body produces all the cholesterol it needs, but cholesterol can also be found in foods that come from other animals such as eggs, milk, meat, and cheese. As these are common staples in every human diet, many people consume much more cholesterol than their body needs.

When your doctor runs a cholesterol test, they’re looking at two main types of cholesterol:

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

Also known as “good cholesterol”, HDLs act as scavengers that carry cholesterol through the bloodstream to the liver, where it’s expelled from the body. High levels of HDL can actually lower your risk of heart disease and stroke.

Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)

The majority of cholesterol in your body is LDL or “bad cholesterol”. LDL can build up in your arteries as plaque, a condition known as atherosclerosis. High levels of LDL increase your risk of heart disease and stroke.

Why is High Cholesterol Dangerous?

Because it has a waxy, fat-like texture, consuming too much cholesterol can cause it to build up in the blood and arteries as plaque. Eventually, the arteries can narrow and harden, leading to a range of serious health problems such as vascular diseases (like coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease), stroke, or heart attack.

What causes High Cholesterol?

Most cases of high cholesterol are caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, though genetics, age, and race can also put you at higher risk. The most common causes of high cholesterol include:

  • Smoking
  • A high-fat diet
  • Lack of physical activity

How Can I Lower My Cholesterol?

Ideally, your total cholesterol level should be less than 200, with at least 60 HDL and less than 130 LDL. If your blood test shows high levels, your doctor may prescribe a combination of lifestyle changes and medications to lower and control your cholesterol.

Helpful lifestyle changes can include:

  • Eating a healthy diet. Heart-healthy diets are low in trans and saturated fats and high in vegetables, fruits, lean meats, and whole grains.
  • Weight management. Maintaining a healthy weight through proper diet and regular exercise can lower your LDL levels.
  • Quitting smoking. Tobacco lowers your HDL levels. The sooner you stop smoking, the faster your body can build helpful HDL to carry cholesterol to the liver.

If lifestyle changes alone can’t control your cholesterol, your doctor may also prescribe medication. Common medications for cholesterol management can include statins, bile acid sequestrants, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, and others. Your doctor will work with you to decide the best type of medication for you.

If you’re struggling with high cholesterol or other vascular health problems, the expert physicians at Vascular Associates of South Alabama can help. We work closely with our patients to develop treatment plans to treat and manage your condition and keep you in optimal health. Contact us today for an appointment.

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Most people alive today know someone who has experienced a stroke. This common but devastating medical condition occurs when blood flow to the brain is restricted, resulting in cell death and potentially permanent brain damage.

A stroke is a serious medical emergency, and they’re all too common. In the United States, a person experiences a stroke every 40 seconds; of those, one in 20 will die. That’s why it’s so important to recognize the symptoms of a stroke - when timing is crucial, knowing how to identify the condition and call for help can save yours or someone else’s life. Here’s what you should know about identifying and reacting to common symptoms of a stroke.

Common Symptoms of a Stroke: Act FAST

One of the most recognized acronyms in the world, F-A-S-T is also a mnemonic that can help you remember the signs and symptoms of a stroke. If you suspect someone is having a stroke, follow these steps:

F - FACE. Ask them to smile. Does one side of their face droop or seem hard to move?

Facial drooping is one of the most commonly recognized symptoms of a stroke. It occurs when the muscles that control the face are damaged in the brain, causing facial paralysis and the characteristic ‘drooping’ appearance. Depending on the type of stroke, this can be due to a lack of oxygen or excess pressure caused by bleeding in the brain.

A - ARMS. Ask them to raise both arms. Do they have trouble lifting them to the same height? Does one arm drift downward?

The same paralysis that causes one-sided facial drooping leads to arm weakness during a stroke. A person suffering a stroke will be unable to hold both arms to the same height. They may also struggle to squeeze your hand or a ball on one side of their body.

S - SPEECH. Ask them to repeat a simple sentence. Is their speech slurred or strange? Do they have trouble repeating the phrase?

Lack of oxygen to the brain can cause a stroke victim to become extremely confused and disoriented. This often results in slurred or strange speech patterns. They may not know they are speaking abnormally, or they may not be able to speak at all. At this stage, it’s crucial to keep them calm and reassure them that you’re seeking medical attention.

T - TIME. If the person is experiencing any of these symptoms, call 9-1-1.

Any symptom of a stroke means it’s time to call 9-1-1 immediately. The best treatments are only effective if administered in the first 3 hours of the first stroke symptoms. This means that seeking prompt treatment is crucial in preventing long-term brain damage from a stroke.

If possible, note the time the first stroke symptom appears. This will help medical professionals decide on the best course of treatment for the stroke patient.

Even if the symptom(s) appears to resolve, don’t delay - call 9-1-1 immediately. This could be a sign of a transient ischemic attack (TIA), an early warning sign of a stroke that needs immediate medical attention.

Other Stroke Symptoms

The F-A-S-T mnemonic is a good way to spot the most common and obvious signs of a stroke, but there are other symptoms you should watch out for. Those include:

Trouble seeing in one or both eyes.

Trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination.

Sudden severe headache with no known cause.

Sudden numbness or weakness of the face or limbs, especially on one side of the body

If you or someone you know is at risk of stroke, the expert physicians at Vascular Associates of South Alabama can help. We offer detailed stroke prevention and management treatments that can analyze and reduce your risk of future strokes. Contact us today!

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A stroke is one of the most widely known - and feared - medical conditions in the world today. You probably know the F-A-S-T pneumonic to identify a stroke, aptly named for the importance of quick medical intervention. But you may not know much about carotid artery disease, the silent killer that contributes to nearly 20% of the 700,000 strokes that will occur this year.

So you can be prepared, here are 5 things to know about carotid artery disease (CAD).

Carotid artery disease restricts blood flow to the brain

When your doctor places a hand on the side of your neck to feel for a pulse, they’re feeling your carotid artery. These major arteries are located on either side of your neck and feed blood to your head and brain. Carotid artery disease occurs when a build-up of fatty deposits known as plaque causes a blockage in your carotid artery, restricting blood flow to the brain.

The first sign of carotid artery disease may be a transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Carotid artery disease develops slowly and may show no noticeable symptoms until you experience a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. A TIA is a temporary restriction of blood flow to the brain.

Symptoms of a TIA include:

  • Numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body
  • Difficulty speaking or slurred speech
  • Trouble seeing in one or both eyes
  • Dizziness
  • Trouble walking or loss of balance

The symptoms of a TIA closely resemble that of a stroke but do not last as long. If you experience any sign of a TIA or stroke, seek medical attention immediately even if you begin to feel better.

Carotid artery disease increases your risk of stroke

Because carotid artery disease restricts blood flow to the brain, it significantly increases your risk of stroke. A stroke deprives your brain of oxygen and can result in permanent brain damage or death in minutes; it is the leading cause of both in the United States.

Carotid artery disease can cause a stroke in two ways. A piece of plaque can break off and become lodged in the brain’s blood vessels, causing an embolism. Less commonly, CAD can become so severe that the carotid artery is blocked completely.

You may be at risk of carotid artery disease

There are risk factors that contribute to a patient’s risk of carotid artery disease. Some are hereditary and health-related, while others are attributed to specific lifestyle choices.

The risk factors for CAD include:

  • Smoking increases your blood pressure and heart rate and can irritate the lining of your arteries, causing damage that leads to plaque.
  • High Blood Pressure causes increased pressure on your artery walls, causing weakness and damage that contribute to CAD.
  • High cholesterol is a major risk factor for carotid artery disease.
  • Diabetes affects your body’s ability to process blood sugar and fats, putting you at a higher risk for high blood pressure and plaque build-up.
  • Obesity increases your risk of diabetes, carotid artery disease, and high blood pressure.
  • Older age causes your arteries to stiffen and become more susceptible to damage.
  • Family history. If someone in your family has had carotid artery disease you may be at higher risk yourself.

Lifestyle changes can prevent carotid artery disease

Good news! There are lifestyle changes you can make to lower your risk and even manage carotid artery disease. They include:

  • Don’t smoke. If you use tobacco, it’s best to quit now. If you’re not a smoker, don’t pick up the habit.
  • Exercise regularly. Physical inactivity contributes to obesity and carotid artery disease. Get the recommended amount of exercise each week.
  • Eat a balanced diet. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables helps you maintain a healthy weight and gives you essential vitamins and nutrients that may prevent strokes and TIAs.
  • Limit fat and cholesterol. This will reduce your risk of atherosclerosis.
  • Reduce alcohol consumption.
  • Manage health conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.

If you’re at high risk for carotid artery disease or have experienced a stroke (or stroke-like symptoms) in the past, it’s important to see a vascular specialist like those at Vascular Associates of South Alabama. A vascular physician can help you control the disease through lifestyle changes, medical management, and surgical treatments to keep you in optimal health. If you need to speak to someone about carotid artery disease, contact us today!

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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a serious medical condition in which a blood clot forms in one of your body’s deep veins. A blood clot (thrombus) is when a clump of blood changes from a liquid to a semi-solid or gel-like state. DVT occurs most commonly in the legs, though it can occur elsewhere in the body.

Your arms and legs have both superficial and deep veins. When a clot forms in a deep vein, it's a serious medical condition. That’s because a piece of the clot may break off and travel to the lungs, causing a medical emergency.

What are the signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)?

DVT can occur without noticeable symptoms. Those that do experience symptoms may experience:

  • Pain or cramping in the leg, usually starting at the calf
  • Swelling in the leg
  • Warmth in the affected area
  • Red or blue skin discoloration

Many people are unaware they have a DVT until it breaks off and reaches the lungs. This is known as a Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and it’s a life-threatening emergency. Signs of a PE can include shortness of breath, chest pain that gets worse with deep breathing, coughing up blood, and rapid heart rate. If you suffer from any of those symptoms, seek emergency medical treatment immediately.

What Causes DVT?

DVT can be caused by anything that prevents your blood from circulating or clotting correctly. The most common causes include:

  • Immobility. Long periods of sitting or immobility are one of the main causes of DVT. This can include bed rest due to illness or surgery, long trips in a car or airplane, or injury to the leg that keeps it immobile.
  • Medication. Certain medications like birth control, estrogen supplements, and hormone replacement therapy can cause DVT.
  • Injury to a vein. Veins can be injured through trauma (such as a broken bone) or surgery.
  • Inherited blood disorders. Some families are predisposed to blood disorders that cause the blood to clot easily or frequently, a condition known as hypercoagulation.

Some individuals are more likely to suffer from deep vein thrombosis than others. Common risk factors include:

  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Certain cancers
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Family history or genetic predisposition to blood clots
  • Heart disease

How is Deep Vein Thrombosis Treated?

To diagnose DVT, your doctor will take a family history, do a physical exam, and conduct one or more diagnostic tests. Those may include an ultrasound, D-dimer blood test, or venography.

If you are diagnosed with DVT, your doctor will work with you to determine the best course of treatment. Common treatment options include:

Blood thinners. The most common treatment for DVT is oral or intravenous blood thinners. They cannot dissolve an existing clot, but they can keep it from growing or breaking as well as keep new clots from forming.

Clot Busters. If blood thinners don’t work, or your clot is dangerously large, your doctor may choose a more aggressive medication known as a clot-buster, or thrombolytic. These medications are inserted intravenously or through a catheter directly into the clot. They carry a severe risk of stroke and bleeding and are often reserved for more serious cases of DVT.

A Vena Cava Filter. If your clot doesn’t respond well to medication, a filter may be surgically placed into the large vena cava vein in your abdomen. This filter prevents clots that break off from reaching the lungs and causing a pulmonary embolism.

Thrombectomy. In rare cases, your doctor may need to surgically remove the clot in a procedure known as a thrombectomy.

Once your DVT is under control, there are lifestyle changes that will help prevent a future clot. Those include exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, stop smoking, and avoiding periods of prolonged immobility.

If you have further questions or are at risk for developing DVT, Vascular Associates of South Alabama can help! Our team of board-certified vascular surgeons will work with you to develop a treatment plan that takes control of your DVT and vascular health. Contact us today!

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For most of us, diseases are diagnosed because we experience common symptoms. Chest pain? It’s likely Coronary Disease. Kidney dysfunction? Let’s test for Renal Disease. Some diseases, like Peripheral Artery Disease, are much harder to diagnose because their symptoms are mild or nonexistent.

Almost half of those with Peripheral Artery Disease have no symptoms at all, especially in the early stages. Of those who do, symptoms can be so mild that they are attributed to natural aging or are easily ignored. Because of this, many patients have Peripheral Artery Disease for years before being diagnosed. Since P.A.D. causes fatty blockage in the arteries that can restrict blood flow, it’s important to catch it early to prevent serious or even life-threatening consequences.

There are a few common signs to watch for that may indicate a vascular disease like P.A.D. If you suffer from any of the below conditions or are at high-risk for the disease, it’s important to speak with your doctor.

Intermittent Claudication

The most common sign of P.A.D. is also one of the most confusing. Intermittent Claudication refers to pain or cramping in the arms or legs that comes with exercise or activity and disappears with rest. Because most of us have experienced occasional discomfort when exercising, it’s one of the most quickly written-off symptoms. The key is that intermittent claudication pain can reach intolerable levels during movement but is relieved very quickly when you stop.

Weakness or numbness in the legs

 If your legs are unusually weak, numb, or prone to “falling asleep”, you may have a blood flow issue that could be due to P.A.D.

Changes in color or temperature in the legs

If one leg is much cooler than the other, or if you notice a change in skin color such as blueness or paleness, it may be due to P.A.D.

Sores on your toes, feet, or legs that won’t heal

Your body needs blood and oxygen to heal wounds. When your blood flow is restricted, even small wounds like a heel blister will be hard to overcome. This opens the door to infection and even gangrene, which can result in leg or foot amputation.

Loss of leg hair

As blood flow is restricted to the skin, it loses its ability to grow or hold body hair. Sparse or missing leg hair can indicate P.A.D.

Poor toenail growth

If you haven’t had to reach for the clippers in a while, it could be due to a vascular problem like P.A.D.

Erectile Dysfunction

In men, P.A.D. can manifest as erectile dysfunction due to decreased blood flow to the genital area.

Pain or cramping in the legs when at rest

If P.A.D is severe, you may experience pain or cramping in your legs or feet even when you’re resting. This occurs when your artery blockage is so severe that blood and oxygen are restricted, and it requires prompt treatment. It’s most commonly experienced as intense pain in the feet while resting at night.

If you think you may have Peripheral Artery Disease, we can help! Our expert vascular specialists can help you devise a treatment plan to take control of the disease and improve your vascular health. Contact us today to schedule your appointment!

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Millions of men and women across the United States are affected by Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). PAD occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood away from the heart, causing them to narrow and restricting blood flow. If you’ve been diagnosed with PAD or think you may be experiencing symptoms, there are a few things you should know about this common condition.

One in every 20 Americans over 50 has P.A.D.

In all, there are between 8-12 million cases of Peripheral Artery Disease in the United States, most of those over the age of 50. P.A.D. can affect anyone but is found most common in older patients, African-Americans and those with chronic health conditions like diabetes or hypertension.

It occurs most commonly in the limbs

Though any peripheral artery can become blocked by plaque, it occurs most commonly in the legs and feet.

It’s most commonly caused by Atherosclerosis

The most common cause of Peripheral Artery Disease is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance made up of cholesterol, fat, calcium, fibrous tissue and other substances in the blood.

Having PAD puts you at risk of other health problems

People with Peripheral Artery Disease are at significantly higher risk of stroke, ischemic heart attacks, and coronary heart disease. If left untreated, P.A.D. can also lead to gangrene and amputation.

You may not know you have P.A.D.

Weakness in the limbs, aching or cramping legs, poor toenail growth - these could be simple signs of aging, but they could also indicate P.A.D. The symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease can range from mild to severe and are often vague enough to be easily mistaken for other conditions or written off completely. To add to the confusion, symptoms may become worse with activity but vanish completely with rest.

Because of this, many patients have P.A.D. for years before a diagnosis is made. If you are 70 years or older or have a history of high-risk factors, you should be screened for Peripheral Artery Disease.

Diagnosis is Easy and Painless

Good news! If you’re at risk of Peripheral Artery Disease or are experiencing symptoms, getting to the right diagnosis is often easy and painless. Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, review your family and medical history, and use test results to determine if you have P.A.D.

A common diagnostic tool is the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI). This painless 10-minute test compares the blood pressure in your feet to the blood pressure in your hands to look for blockages. Your ankle pressure should be within 90% of your arms, but if the blockage is severe it may be less than 50%.

If your ABI result is concerning, your doctor may use a vascular ultrasound or other imaging studies to test further.

You can take control of your PAD

In most cases, managing PAD is as simple as lifestyle changes and medication to prevent clots. Like so many other health issues, PAD can be reduced with exercise, a proper diet, and smoking cessation. Managing chronic conditions like diabetes or high cholesterol also helps reduce PAD.

In severe cases, surgery or injections may be needed to remove blockages or bypass the damaged artery. Speak with your doctor about what treatment plan is best for you.

We can help!

The specialists at Vascular Associates of South Alabama can help you diagnose and manage your Peripheral Artery Disease. Our expert staff uses state-of-the-art equipment and a range of treatment options to help you take control of your PAD - and your life. Call to schedule your appointment today.

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